A pronounced "Ah." Spelled "ah;" occasionally pronounced as short "A." Spelled "a."
E pronounced as long A. Spelled "ay;" occasionally as short "e." Spelled "eh."
I pronounced as long E. Spelled "ee."
O pronounced as long O. Spelled "oh."
U pronounced as "oo." Spelled "oo."
AI pronounced as long I. Spelled "aye."
Italics indicate the stressed syllable.
Adon--(ah-dohn), masculine title of respect: Lord.
Adonai--(Ah-dohn-naye), plural of adoni--used exclusively for Yahweh.
Adoni--(ah-dohn-ee), my lord.
Aijalon--(Aye-yah-lohn), a pass from the hills into the Shephelah about 15 miles west of Jebus.
Alluph--(ahl-loof), Amalek masculine title of respect.
Amtum--(ahm-toom), female slave.
Awilum--(ah-wee-loom), free man.
Baalah--(bah-ah-lah), feminine title of respect: Lady.
Bat--(baht), daughter of, or female descendent of.
Bekor--(beh-kohr), firstborn, masculine.
Bekorah--(beh-kohr-ah), firstborn, feminine.
Ben--(bayn), son of, or male descendent of.
Chinnereth--See Sea of Chinnereth.
Couscous--(koos-koos), cooked cracked wheat.
Cuirass--(kwee-rahs), armored "shirt" for heavy infantry.
Dagon--fish god of the Philistines.
Dahveed--(dah-veed), probably "Beloved one." May have been used to designate an important or "beloved" leader in war. It is used in this context in this book, although there is much argument over the word's ancient usage and meaning.
Dod--(dohd), kinsman, uncle, indicates close kinsman relationship.
Dodi--(doh-dee), my uncle.
Geber--(gehb-behr), masculine title of respect: master or sir.
Geberet--(geh-behr-eht), feminine title of respect: mistress or ma'am.
Gebirah--(geh-beer-ah), the woman in whom the kingdom is embodied. She is also called the "Handmaid." Whomever the gebirah marries will have the right to rule the kingdom. The gebirah was normally of the same clan as the royal family, if not the royal family itself.
Girdle--wide wrap of cloth or soft leather wrapped around the waist to hold a robe together and provide a place to put things.
Great Sea--Ancient name for the Mediterranean Sea.
Habiru--(hah-bee-roo), name for bands of nomads, usually small, which roamed Israel during the time of David. They were composed of landless family units or displaced persons from the twelve tribes or any of the surrounding nations. Their main occupation was as mercenaries, but many bands simply supported themselves by robbery and murder. Habiru can refer to the entire band, or a single member of it.
Hakkohen Haggadol--(hah-koh-hayn hah-gah-dohl), the High Priest.
Hallelu--(hahl-lay-loo), second person plural command. "You (all of you) praise."
Hamsin--(hahm-seen), harsh dry east wind from the desert.
Hassar--(hah-sahr), The prince, hence first or crown prince.
Hassarah--(hah-sahr-ah), The princess/queen, hence most important princess/queen.
Henna--reddish stain from plants used to decorate nails and skin.
Hesed--(hes-ed), voluntary kindness on the life-saving level provided by the only one able to give it.
Jebus--ancient name for the city which became Jerusalem.
Leben--(leh-behn), curdled milk, churned in a skin bag and used for food.
Mashiah--(mah-shee-ah), anointed one.
Meil--(may-eel), expensive, richly embroidered tunic worn only by royalty.
Melek--(mel-ek) King. Dahveed was anointed as melek.
Nahsi--(nah-see), also Nasi, masculine title of respect: high/governing lord. Carries the connotation of political/judicial authority.
Nagid--(nah-geed) Prince, captain or leader. Used in this book as the next step down from king. Shaul was anointed as nagid.
Pithoi--Plural of pithos.
Pithos--Large pottery jars used for storage. They were wide at the top and tapered to a near point at the bottom.. A grain pithos could be six feet tall and 30 inches across at the widest point, just under the neck.
Roeh--(Roh-eh), seer or prophet.
Sahrah--(sah-rah), feminine title of respect: princess, queen.
Sar--(sahr), masculine title of respect: prince. In Philistia it means "commander".
Salt Sea--Ancient name for the Dead Sea.
Sea of Chinnereth--Ancient name for the Sea of Galilee.
Seren--(seh-rehn), Philistine title equivalent to Sar/Nagid.
Sereni--(Seh-rehn-ee), my seren.
Shephelah--the gently rolling hills between the coastal plain by the Mediterranean Sea and the central hills of Palestine west of the Jordan River.
Wardum--(wahr-doom), male slave.
Yah's fire--Lightning. Lightning was considered fire from the god of the land.